Last Updated July 30, 2005


Cards are drawn one by one. Each one represents either a "Manouvre Unit". Company sized force for Western armies, or a Batallion sized unit for Sov pack or Arab forces. When one side's card is drawn they may move and fire as they wish, or they may withold their turn until later.

The pack of cards has one card per Manouvre Unit" per player plus some extras. This can be varied at the scenario level but the basic is
+1 card for Brits, Germans and most other Nato, including USA in Defence
+2 cards for US or Soviet or Israeli if attacking, for first 3 turns, +1 after that. (3 for US in desert storm)
+0 cards for Sovs if defending, or Arabs in any condition.

Each "Manouvre Unit" may be selected twice, and before all units have had one turn. No unit may have more than 2 turns,

Optionally try individual named cards for Russian units, but for western units a card may represent any unit at the western players discretion. This simulates the greater flexability of the western forces.

NB A mech inf platoon and it's vehicle are inseperable, they are 1 unit.

Armoured Vehicles
Mechanised Infantry
leg infantry + ANY troops in urban or forest terrain

If a Tactical unit has never been fired on before and has friendlies in front of it then it can move double distance. Once it has exceeded normal speed, anyone firing on them has a +2 to hit modifier, even indirect fire gets +1

Keep simple. Anybody moving or firing can be seen by anybody
Target Type Spotted Range / Recon
Stationery Vehicle 6" / 8"
Heavily camouflaged vehicle 3" / 4"
Stationery Infantry 2" / 3"
Heavily dug in infantry 1" / 2"
TO HIT Table 1D10
Firing Type
<= 2"
<= 4"
<= 8"
<= 12"
Ultra modern computerised
Laser Range finder (West)
Laser Range Finder (East)
Earlier Range Finder 90mm+
Earlier Range Finder <90mm
Tow / Milan / Swingfire / Hellfire
LAW / RPG etc
7 (or8?)
20-30mm autocannons
Helicopter Rockets

ATGW hit at end of next enemy phase, regardless of whether the next phase is allied or enemy. This gives the enemy a chance to shoot back. If ATGW firer suffer any morale losses then halve chance to hit, rounded down. (If destroyed then auto miss)
ALL Autocannons and rockets fire twice, and could hit "multiple times on each shot" Only at one target though.

"TACTICAL Unit" Morale Table
Implication Dice
OK Everything OK
Nervous -1 on to hit modifiers for unit
Shaken -2 on to hit modifiers and can not move towards known enemy positions
Broken Must run away each turn until morale improves
If a Tactical unit is hit again determine how much damage is done. compare this with the damage the unit already has. Apply the worst of the two and make it one level worse. Broken goes to "Dead".

"Manoeuvre Unit" Morale
Once 1 tac unit has been Broken or killed, all remaining tac units can't be OK. Once > 1/2 a Manoeuvre unit is shaken or worse the entire manoeuvre unit must retreat each turn until morale improves. They may fire in retreat.

TO HIT modifiers
Target in "transit mode" +2
Firer Nervous -1
Firer Shaken -2


TO HIT results
< number
= number or +1
Single hit
+2 or more
Multiple Hits


<2" inc close combat
20-30mm Autocannon
2/2/4/7/8/10 Computer fire control only
Law / RPG
Tow / Milan / Swingfire
Helicopter Rockets
*NB If you scored "Multiple Hits" deduct 2 from required penetration role. 1 always misses though and "-" always remains "-"
*NB If you fire on target at least 90 degrees to the front, i.e. straight side on or further to the rear then count target as one class lower.
Penetration Target Classification Table


Warrior Bradley
T55 T62 M48
T64 T72 Leopard M60 Centurion
Chieftain / T80
Challenger Abrams

Morale Recover - End turn (1D6 / Platoon)
1-4 Nothing Happens
5 Morale goes up +1 level
6 Morale goes up +2 levels. Dead stays dead.

*NB in a damaged company roll for most damaged platoons first, these may recover enough to bring Manouvre morale above 50% and then all COULD be OK.

*NB Elite troops roll +1 on this dice throw. So can recover quickly


Results of Penetration Table
Morale / Losses
= or +1
+2 or +3
+4 or +5
All Dead
If target hit more than once take worst damage level and add 1.
-3 morale
-2 morale
8 / 9
-1 morale
7 or less
no significant effect
Elite troops firing (or autocannon <=2") (or helicopter rockets <=4")
Ave Western troops or Best Russians or (AFV HMG <=2")
Crap Western + most soviet (or autocannon <=4")
3rd world troops or (AFV HMG <=4")
If the defender is heavily dug in, or firer is "Nervous"
If the firer is "Shaken"


The defending platoon nor any supporting troops get to fire. This is all factored into one close combat roll.

For each squad etc in a close assault roll 1D6 and add modifiers. If one side has > 1:1 odds roll one dice for each unit, count the highest score rolled.

If an attacker lines up against a defender. One additional defender can come to the defenders aide so long as they are not in combat, within 2" and part of the same manoeuvre unit.

If attacker wins a combat the defender loses one tactical unit and any survivors retreat 2". The attacker can advance into defenders vacant position if wish.

If the defender wins a combat the attacker loses a tactical unit and any survivors retreat 2". Loser always decides which unit has been lost if more than one unit engaged.

If close combat scores are drawn, Both sides lose 1 tactical unit.

NB A mech inf tactical unit and it's vehicle are inseperable, they are 1 unit. Only exception is that the APC CAN be destroyed seperately in special circumstances

+3 Elite troops OR defender is "Broken"
+2 Ave Western troops or Best Russians OR defender is "Shaken"
+1 Crap Western most soviet + any vehicles with a HMG OR defender is "Nervous"
0 3rd world troops + any unarmed vehicles
+1 Infantry or AFV's if the defender
+1 Mech Inf platoons get a +1 bonus if they have mechanised infantry fighting vehicles such as a Warrior, Bradley, Marder or BMP. You get no bonus for a M113, FV432 or BTR.
Artillery To Hit 1D6
Pre Planned Fire 4
Spotter can see target units 5
Spotter can see target "area" 6
Firing Blind 7
1st Rate Western Artillery (1970-80's) +1
Poor Western or Good Russian artillery 0
Poor Soviet or 3rd world -1
Super Modern western artillery 1990's + +2
Each consecutive turn firing at same target (unless firing blind) +1
Target in "Transit mode" +1
NB Morale losses are not relevant with artillery

An engineer unit takes 1 entire turn to clear a minefield 1 element wide.
Non engineer attempting same thing roll 1D6
6 Non engineer unit destroyed
5 Unit suffers -3 morale
4 Unit suffers -2 morale
3 Unit suffers -1 morale
1,2 No effect.
Any way mine field is mostly cleared. All further units go through suffer -1 morale on a 6 on 1D6

At the beginning of each turn roll 1D6. If score on table below then 1 fighter bomber arrive as the very first action of the FOLLOWING turn.
UK or German
Russian 1st rate
Russian 2nd rate

Firing at Helicopters (1D10)
SA-7 or equiv
ZSU-23 or equiv (or super modern sam)
"Guns" can fire to
Hand held SAM's
Vehicle SAM's
SAM armed infantry get 1 free shot per turn at helicopters plus normal fire.


Aircraft fly across most of the board. As such we don't try to measure distances. Look at all the surface to air assets the defender has and apply it to the table below. Only one role per turn is made, when the aircraft come on the board. Effects are applied before the bombing run.

Defenders have "few" or old SAM's and no ZSU's or equiv.
6=Abort the bomb run
Defenders have a lot of good SAM's or ZSU, Rapier etc
6=shot down
If the defenders have more than 1 ZSU-23 etc left then add a total of +1 to the dice roll.
+1 to dice roll

Artillery Effect
Mortar (2ft range)

Hit means platoon is hit
Miss means no effect

Medium Artillery <=122mm (any range) Hit means platoon is hit
Miss by 1 means hit the nearest platoon within 2" (if there is one)
Heavy Artillery <=155mm (any range) Hit means 2 platoons are hit (closest)
Miss by 1 means 1 other platoons within 3" is hit at random. Original target can not be hit.
Massive Artillery >155 or salvo rocket batteries (any range) Hit means 3 platoons are hit (2 closest)
Miss by 1 means 2 other platoons within 4" are hit at random. Original target can not be hit.
Miss by 2 means 1 other platoons within 6" is hit at random.

Indirect Fire Damage (1D6)
Artillery type
Leg inf or Mech inf within 2" of enemy
Tank or other mech inf or concrete bunker
Medium Artillery
Heavy Artillery or helicopter rockets
Salvo Rocket Batteries or aircraft bombs
NB Helicopter Rockets get +1 against Mech inf APC's
The lowest number that can hit causes -1 morale damage. Each number causes one higher level of damage.

All but Salvo Rockets may fire smoke Mortars and medium lay 3" X 2" per model, heavy 4" X 2". Smoke never misses. It doesn't give 100% cover. To fire through smoke roll 1D6. If you have thermal imaging then youy can see the target on a roll of 3,4,5,6 otherwise on a roll of 5,6. If you fail you can not fire at anything else.
Western or Russian (not 3rd world) HEAVY or larger artillery batteries, may fire in counter battery mode. Roll 1D6 for each tactical unit, for Russians a score of 6 will disable one enemy tactical artillery unit for the duration of the game. Western forces need a 5 or 6.



These rules are intended for the 1970's in western Germany or Israel. (mainly germany). They can be used in the 80's and 90's if you wish. I have given a few token rules for more sophisticated armour, firepower and targeting systems than are generally available in the 1970's. They do not try to properly cover from the period 2000 onwards though.

Take an ordinary set of playing cards, for each "Western" Manoeuvre unit in use, including helicopters and on board artillery such as mortar select one black card. You don't need to write on the cards. For each "Soviet" Manoeuvre unit in use, including helicopters and on board artillery such as mortar select one red card. Then write on the face of each card the unit it represents. You may in addition have extra cards, these do not represent a specific unit so are not written on (they should be black for NATO and RED for Soviet though. You then shuffle the cards and turn them over one at a time. E.g. if the first card drawn is a black card, then any Nato manoeuvre unit may take it's turn, or hold until later in the turn. If the next card drawn is a red card with "3rd T72 battallion" written on it then that unit may take it's turn. If the next card is a bonus red card with no units name written on it, then any soviet unit may have a turn, whether it has already had a turn or not. (no unit may have more than two turns).

To reflect differences in organisation, independence of command etc, Nato units have more independence at a lower level. This is represented by having a "Tactical Unit" which is a single vehicle model represent a platoon, and approx 3 of these units representing a company making up a Manoeuvre unit. For Soviet and Arab forces the Tactical Unit (single vehicle miniature) represents a company. The 2 vehicles that represent a company must stay within 2" of each other but this formation does not have a role in the game, instead the Soviet Manoeuvre unit is the Battalion of normally 3 companies, or in this case 6 vehicle tactical units. In western forces a single vehicle represents about 3-4 vehicles or a platoon of infantry. In soviet or arab forces a single vehicle represents 5-6 vehicles. At this scale 2 vehicles represents a company of tanks or mech infantry. Artillery is a little different. For western forces a battery is represented by 2 gun models, and an artillery regiment or battalion by anything up to 8 gun models. Wouldn't really field more than one of these in a game and most would probably be off board anyway. Soviet Artillery has one gun representing a battery and 3 guns representing a battalion. As such more than one battalion may be represented in the game. Again note most of these guns would probably be off board (saves buying artillery pieces). To represent infantry I would suggest a single APC mounted with 4-5 infantry figures. (maybe 4 for Nato and 5 for Soviets). If possible the APC should be detachable from the base. Particularly if it is a BMP, Warrior or Bradley type heavily armed APC. Normally mech inf units are represented by just this one base, it is not necessary to have separate mounted and dismounted representations. In most cases they exist together and share each others fate. There is one special circumstance covered in the rules which only applies to Bradley, Warrior, BMP and other heavily armed APC's (not ones with a single heavy machine gun like FV432, M113, BTR). Tanks may specifically target the APC's when the unit is iin an urban or forested environment as it is assumed the infantry will be dismounted. If the APC is successfully destroyed the infantry remain as leg infantry and continue to fight (though with a -1 morale modifier) in all other circumstances the mech inf unit moves, fights and dies as a single unit.

The current scale used is 1cms = 100 metres, or 1" = 250 yards. Vehicles and mech inf should be mounted on a base something in the region of 1" square (exact size doesn't matter). This density of vehicles is more realistic than the entire battalion of tanks deployed in an area the size of a football field! This game is intended to be played with 1/285th GHQ or similar miniatures, and no ground based vehicle can move more than 4" or 1,000 yards in a normal combat turn. This means the average board represents a large area and allows space for separate defence lines etc. Do note in above example that a unit may be activated twice in a turn, could move on each of these, and in theory could even "Transit move" as one or both of these moves so could move an unlikely but theoretical 16" during the course of one turn.

Nearly everything moves at the same speed. 4" per turn. Mech inf move at this speed unless they are within 2" of an enemy target, or in an urban environment or in a major forest etc in all of these cases they are assumed to have dismounted with the APC behind them, and can only move 2". Likewise in urban or forested terrain tanks are also reduced to the lower speed of 2"

TRANSIT MOVE - If troops are behind friendly lines and not yet been engaged in combat they have the option to "move faster" this is simulated by doubling their movement speed but making them more vulnerable to fire. Units can not do this if they have been fired upon by ANYTHING, including artillery and air attacks as they would then be being much more careful!

I try and make up clever spotting rules, and then never use them! So I have tried to be practical rather than very clever. If any unit moves or fires then everyone can see it from anywhere. There are then two target types, Infantry which can take cover and hide very well and tanks and other vehicles which are more difficult to hide. In addition each of these has two states. Heavily dug into prepared firing positions, covered fox wholes etc that took a long time to prepare, and much more hasty, hull down positions, hidig behind a bush etc. Because of the scale of the board the defender could have secondary defensive lines that have to be scouted, identified and overcome. Recon units don't normally get used much in a game like this, but now they actually have a use. As such the spotting table has 2 figures. The first is the range at which a target is automatically spotted by most troops. The 2nd is the range that they are automatically spotted by specialist reconnaissance units. If the reccon unit spots them , then everyone spots them. If you are big on Reccon you could say that the recon unit has to survive until the end of the turn for the target to be spotted but I can't be bothered. Likewise I have considered making it more difficult to hit reccon units, but again can't be bothered. Feel free to do so if you wish though.

Ultra modern computerised represents those targeting computers available on Leopard 2, Abrams, challengers and perhaps T-90 or later soviet tanks? It is not available for any vehicles in the 1970's period the rules are aimed at. ATGW are a special case, I want to factor in their relative slow speed and the chance for an enemy to retaliate. I have avoided giving the enemy the option to take evasive manoeuvres but would like to give them the chance to fire back and disrupt the missile firers. This works fine if a "card" represents any unit, but not so well when a card represents a named unit. I am still thinking about this one. TO HIT results Remember that the firer and the target both represent more than one vehicle, and the timeframe represents more than one shall. As such I have abstracted the number of hits as a "single" hit or "multiple hits" the only difference being that when a target is barraged with multiple hits there is a greater likelihood of more vehicles being destroyed or incapacitated, thus affecting the "Penetration" figure.

Any tactical unit may be totally destroyed. This represents significant loss of life and irreparable damage to a significant number of vehicles. Prior to that level of damage the unit's effectiveness can still be degraded. I have refered to this as Tactical Unit Morale, it is infact an amalgam of psychological factors and physical damage. A unit can suffer -1, -2 or -3 morale damage. The next level is total destruction. Each morale level has greater penalties on combat power and freedom of movement.

COMBINING DAMAGE - e.g. if a US mech inf platoon was blasted by a T72 unit and suffered a -2 morale effect, and was then hit by a BM-21 barrage which also inflicted a -2 morale modifier. The way you work out the damage is to take the worst of the two damages (the original one or the new one) and add ONE to the level. So in this example the mech inf platoon would have it's morale dropped by a factor of -3 which equals "Broken".

Because the morale factor is an abstract of psychological factors, hum and machinery damage and death, it is possible that morale will improve, that humans can be bandaged and machinery can have minor damage repaired. As such at the end of every complete turn, not one unit's turn, the complete turn. Every unit that has anything less than an OK morale rolls a D6 and may increase their morale level. In addition to tactical morale, the larger manoeuvre unit that the tactical unit is a part of also has a morale level. There is no roll for this it is made up out of the sum of tactical unit morale. I.e. if enough platoons are trashed the company as a whole will retreat. If enough platoons then heal their morale, the company as a whole may attack again.

The table cross refernces weapon size to range to target. Then 6 separated numbers are given. These numbers represent 6 categories of target ranging from M113 APC to Challenger 2 tank. Examples are given just below the penetration table. It is not exhaustive but should give you a good idea. Please note the main difference between the first and 2nd column is qty and quality of spaced armour. Column one is FV432, M113, BTR or other APC's with a thin steel or aluminium skin proof against little more than small arms and shrapnel. The 2nd column is more sophisticated APC's with assorted high tech spaced armours to protect against RPG's and perhaps 20-30mm autocannons, such as the Warrior and the Bradley. I don't think any unit from the 1970's falls into this category, perhaps some light tanks, Sheridan, PT76 etc. Because a vehicle represents about a platoon, I have not made it easy to get a bonus for a "flank shot" you have to be totally to the side or rear of a unit to qualify.

This represents all direct anti infantry weapons. Including small arms, tank and infantry machine guns, and auto cannons up to 30mm. The assumption being that any vehicle armed with a weapon of higher calibre than 30mm would use this weapon primarily against vehicles, and would use it's lighter secondary weapons against infantry. You role 1D10 and add a bonus for the category you are in. The inf platoon then potentially suffers a morale reduction in exactly the same way as a vehicle unit is affected by main gun fire. In the special case of a mech inf platoon, it could have suffered -1 morale hit at long range from a tank which fires at the APC. It then gets to within 2" of an enemy infantry platoon and counts as dismounted. The mech inf takes another -1 morale modifier from infantry fire and the mech inf unit, both men and APC are now at a morale modifier of -2. (take the worst of -1 and -1 and then make 1 level worse, i.e. -2)

Inf V mounted inf = use RPG's
Inf V leg infantry = use small arms
Tank V mounted inf = use main gun at APC
Tank V leg infantry = use MG's on small arms
Inf V mech inf dismounted = small arms only, can't use RPG's
Tank V Mech Inf dismounted = EITHER MG's against inf on small arms table, APC shares the fate of the infantry, OR main gun against APC in which case the APC is detroyed and removed from base if +1 penetration or better is scored. In which case only -1 morale modifier is applied to the tactical unit.

This is very similar to small arms and is intended to cover leg infantry and mech infantry combat. Tanks can fight in close combat but only with a factor of +1 which would put them on the same value as an average soviet platoon. Not a productive use of your armour. Mech inf units fight as a single unit, if they are carried by M113, BTR etc the vehicle is completely ignored. If they are carried by an APC with effective weaponry such as a Marder or BMP then the mech inf unit gets a +1 factor to represent this firepower, the APC does not fight separately in the close combat, nor can it use it's weapons at long range against armour if it adds the +1 to the mech inf's combat value. If one side outnumbers the other, the side with more units, rolls multiple dice and keeps the best of them. This does not gurantee a victory but it does increase the odds. The losing side loses one Tactical unit. To take into consideration the destructive nature of close combat, if both sides score equal, then both sides lose a tactical unit. Note in close combat there is no option to inflict -1,-2 or -3 morale modifiers. The losing unit is removed as destroyed.

At the beginning of each turn, each artillery observer that a side has been allocated must plot artillery, not for the turn that is about to take place but for the turn following. The chance of the artillery hitting the target is increased by how well the observer can see the target. If when the artillery falls the target is still where it was when the artillery was called in, OR there is a target within 2" of that point then a hit hits that unit. If there is no such target within 2" of the target point anymore then the artillery barrage does nothing. The chance of hitting other targets if the barrage is off target by a bit is increased by the weight of the barrage. We avoid precise fall of shot etc. If for example a BM-21 salvo rocket battery falls on a mech inf company in woods and a 6 is rolled, the mech inf platoon that was targeted is hit plus the 2 nearest other platoons as well, so long as they are within 4" of the original target. In this case probably all platoons in the mech inf company would be hit by the barrage. For damage inflicted by indirect fire I have tried to simplify the cover categories. Infantry only get the maximum cover factor if they are mech inf greater than 2" from an enemy, and not in urban territory, which implies they are mounted in their vehicles, or if they are taking up defensive positions in prepared concrete pillboxes which is not very likely. If they are dismounted and merely hiding in fox holes, shell holes, woods or town buildings they count as the first column and are more vulnerable.

Instead of plotting HE fire, you may plot smoke. Salvo rockets can't. Mortars and medium lay 3" X 2" per model, heavy is same but 4" X 2". To make life easy smoke always lands where you aim it. It lands at the beginning of the following turn, (same as HE) and disperses at the end of that turn. Smoke does not provide 100% cover. To fire through smoke roll 1D6. If you have 1980's or better Thermal imaging then youy can see the target and fire on a roll of 3,4,5,6 otherwise only on a roll of 5,6. If you fail you can not fire at anything else.

I have included simple counter battery rules to allow you to try and take out the opposing artillery. It is simple and there are no morale modifiers, either you get the other guy or you don't. In the case of an enemy artillery unit being taken out this does mean they are all dead. It is possible men and vehicles have been killed or injured, it is also possible that fire has become too heavy and they have decided to relocate to a significantly different location. The amount of time it will take them to relocate, set themselves up and get back on the artillery net means that the game will be over, hence them dropping off the world. If you were playing ultra modern with sophisticated MLRS, AS90 etc vehicles it may be possible for them to shoot and scoot and get set back up within the length of the game. I suggest something like, each turn after an artillery unit has been neutralised by counter battery fire, roll 1D10. On a roll of "0" the unit comes back on line. I think this should only apply to very well connected tactical fire control systems such as the west own from the 1990's onwards.

Each turn roll a dice to see if you get close air support. Factor is high for US because they love aircraft and low for Russia as they don't believe in close air support. When an aircraft comes on the board the defender gets one roll to try and abort the attack run. Make a subjective decision as to how good the air defence is and roll 1D6. I suggest this is agreed before the game begins. If the aircraft does not abort or is shot down then drop 1 bomb in their run at any target that has currently been spotted. They then leave the board.

Count as an ordinary platoon. They have cards and move and shoot like a tank, they normally have a choice of firing ATGW or rockets or autocannon once per turn, they choose which weapon system to use dependant on their needs. Helicopters tend to fly nap of earth, take this into account when considering who can fire at them, from a line of sight basis. Good systems like Gepard or ZSU-23/4 roll 1D10 and on a score of 8,9,10 destroy a helicopter model. This is their turn. Many infantry carry hand held SAM's which could be used against a helicopter, though they aren't very good in this role. As such I allow them a free shot at the helicopter, but only with a 1 in 10 chance of bringing it down. I am not sure about this rule and may change it.

I can't be bothered to use mines, and view them more of an obstacle than a real offensive weapon. However these simple rules I feel give the right effect. If engineers clear a gap then anyone can get through without a problem in future. If an ordinary unit tries to clear a minefield the results are less effective and a few mines are left behind, as such all units which follow after them still have a small chance of taking damage.

No fixed view on this, a reasonable option is to put card counters out where real units are and include say 30-50% bogus card counters. Only when you get close enough to see what it is do you turn the counter over. Gets tricky as could be infantry or vehicle? SMOKE Can be laid instead of HE by artillery. Mortar or medium artillery lays 3" Heavy artillery 4" and salvo rockets 6" wide layer of smoke, in all cases 2" thick. Lasts for one turn.



Return to WWII Warfare Page